Yellow Sapphire Gemstone Information



Yellow Sapphire

Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraj) Gemstone of Planet Jupiter:


COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.


Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)


Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire

Chemical Composition   –     AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                            –     Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow color to dark organish golden to greenish yellow.

Species                         –     Corundum

Density                          –     4.00

Birefringence                  –     0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Yellow sapphire Jupiter Mantra

“Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone


Astrological information of yellow sapphire

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond. - See more at: http://www.shinestones.com/yellow-sapphire/

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

Yellow Sapphire is the primary gem for the planet Jupiter. Yellow Sapphire is another variety of the mineral Corundum, as are Ruby, Sapphire and the other color varieties of Sapphire such as Pink Sapphire, Purple Sapphire, Padparadscha, etc. Sapphire Corundum is the mineral second in hardest only to Diamond. Hardness is so highly prized a quality in gem minerals not only for it's durability, but also because the faceted gem may be polished with nice mirror like facets, which are more brilliant, or reflect more white light than a softer mineral.

Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraaj) blesses one with good luck & fortune, wealth & prosperity, valor & fame. It brings success and profits in business & industry ; promotion, raise & approbation in service ; economic abundance, all comforts and luxuries in life.

Yellow Sapphire removes hurdles in finding love, getting married, creates conducive circumstances to hasten delayed marriage, grants true happiness & marital bliss, and improves the quality of life. It brings affection & harmony in relationships ; fills one with enthusiasm & positive attitude. It results in fulfillment, benevolence, longevity & good health.

A good quality yellow sapphire gives the wearer happiness, fortune, prosperity, intelligence, fame, good name, wealth, comfort, good health, a long life, and blesses women with good children.

There can be an immediate financial change for the better shortly after putting on a yellow sapphire. Yellow sapphires can also give one a more philosophical attitude toward life, and aid meditation and concentration. Yellow sapphire protects its wearers from evil spirits.

It is believed that if a woman having difficulty getting married or with marriage problems wears a yellow sapphire, the obstructions to her happiness will be removed.

Yellow sapphires are recommended for those taking part in business, and those interested in spiritual pursuits, such as preaching, yoga, meditation, and study. It is good to wear yellow sapphires when taking long journeys or if one travels often.

Perceived to be one of the safest stones, known to man, for its neutral effects to those it might not suit and superlative effects to those it does; it is no wonder that this gemstone reigns supreme in terms of being expensive, second only to the diamond. A stone worn by many star signs, Yellow Sapphire is known to increase your financial status, empowering you with more ways of earning an extra buck to your otherwise routine pay check.

Yellow Sapphire is known to provide the wearer with enormous wealth, good health, fame, name, honour and success. Yellow Sapphire represents the planet Jupiter. And Jupiter is known to be the largest planet that has its comparison with Saturn. Because of the magnanimity of its size, Jupiter belongs to the category of excesses. It is also known to empower one with the capacity of single handedly being the master of the one's desires.

It is also said that if you seek to sort all marital problems, then Yellow Sapphire is the solution for you. The Power of this gem is such that the girl that you desire will be yours forever and if a girl will wear this gem then she will get married early.

As mentioned earlier, the colour yellow brings in warmth and any bodily action that requires this will necessarily be treated with Yellow sapphire. Happily married couples also give credit to the Yellow Sapphire for its presence in their lives.

Yellow sapphire signifies knowledge, wisdom, virtue, fortune, justice, education, future, religion, philosophy, devotion, children, distant travel, spirituality, truthfulness, prosperity and charity.


**Medical Disclaimer** All Above mentioned Descriptions are according to Indian & Chinese Mythology & the seller takes no Responsibility whatsoever for any claim made in the Descriptions. Healing benefits of stones should not be intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other healthcare professional.


Yellow Sapphire has become a favorite in jewelry because it is available in so many color nuances, ranging from a light lemon yellow  to a fully saturated vivid yellow to a deep orangey-yellow. Yellow sapphire also has a special place in Vedic astrology, where pukhraj is one of the 9 sacred gems.

Sapphire is one of the most important of all the loose colored gemstones and comes in a wide variety of colors: blue, pink, yellow, green, purple, orange, padparadscha, blue green, lemon yellow, color change, and black color.   With a hardness of 9 on the Moh's scale, loose cut sapphires are extremely hard tough and durable, they are suitable for use in any kind of jewelry. Sapphire of all colors have become especially popular for astrological rings or engagement rings , since sapphire is durable enough to wear every day.

The prices and value of yellow sapphire vary depending on the size, quality and treatment of the  individual gemstone.  Unheated yellow sapphires with good color saturation and excellent clarity are the rarest and most valuable, especially in larger sizes, and much sought after by gem collectors. Most yellow sapphires have been heat treated to improve the color and clarity. In addition,  many yellow sapphires in the market have been heat treated with beryllium, in a process known as lattice diffusion. This process produces vivid yellows and oranges.


Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry? 
 
There are many reasons, but basically it boils down to value and choice.

When buying your gemstone loose instead of a pre-set stone, you can be sure you are getting the best value for your money.  Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for.  The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting.  A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color.  With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is.  In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice.  You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver; prong set or bezel set.  You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!


Yellow sapphire ring                                              yellow sapphire jewelry



 AnchorAttributes

OriginMadagascar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Burma, Australia, India, Kenya, Tanzania, U.S.A.
ColorYellow, light lemon to dark yellow, Burma yellow, Ceylon yellow, orange-yellow
Refractive Index1.759-1.778
Chemical CompositionAL2 O3
Hardness9
Density4
Crystal StructureTrigonal
Zodiac SignLibra
PlanetJupiter
MonthSeptember
Anniversary5th and 45th


Yellow sapphire's attractive color is just one reason for this gemstone's popularity. As with all sapphire, it's also extremely durable, having a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. Sapphire has a specific gravity of 4.00, a refractive index of 1.76 - 1.78, and birefringence of 0.008.  The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral. Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs.  The gem yellow sapphire is classified as having a trigonal crystalline structure because it has three planes of symmetry and four axes. Three axes are at 60 degrees to each other in the same plane. The fourth axis is perpendicular and unequal in length to the other three. The form of a sapphire's crystals depends on the variety and locality. Sapphires may have an uneven or a conchoidal fracture but no real cleavage. The amount of light reflected at the surface of a gemstone is its luster and yellow sapphires have a glassy (vitreous) luster as opposed to the waxy, greasy, or resinous luster of other stones.


AnchorColor 

Color is the single most important factor in determining the value of a yellow sapphire.  Indeed, the color of a sapphire is more important than its clarity. Sapphires are rarely clean and even very expensive stones can be slightly included. Subtle differences in color can make great variations in valuations of fine gemstones. Fine loose gemstones of good color and clarity are always rare and valuable. Highly saturated medium or medium dark yellow tones are best, yellow sapphires which are too dark or too light are worth considerably less.  Beautiful colors include bright lemon yellow, vivid yellow and rich Ceylon yellow.

The name sapphire comes from the Greek word "sapphirus", meaning "blue".  However, sapphire gemstones come in many colors including pink, yellow, orange, green, black, color-change, purple, violet, light blue, and the rare orange-pink Padparadscha sapphire gems.Padparadscha comes from the Sinahalese word meaning "lotus color". Sapphires other than blue, pink, yellow, green and orange sapphire are usually called "natural fancy-color sapphire". Red hues result from traces of chromium. The greater the concentration of oxides the deeper the color. So pink sapphire and ruby are the same gemstone with just different levels of chromium.


AnchorCut

Ovals, rounds, cushions and emeralds are the most common cuts for yellow sapphire, due to the typical shape of saphire rough. Other popular sapphire shapes include pears, briolettes, hearts and  marquises.  Star sapphires are cut into the cabochon shape in order to develop and properly display the star effect.  Fibers or fibrous cavities within a star sapphire reflect the light which causes a star to appear within the stone. A six-ray star sapphire has three sets of parallel fibers. Skilled cutters can sometimes create a 12-ray star sapphire but they are rare.
 
 
AnchorTreatments

Traditional heating is widely used for yellow sapphire and is an accepted enhancement process which can improve the transparency and color of the stones. Techniques range from simply throwing gems into a fire to be cooked, to employing sophisticated electric or gas furnaces at specific pressures and atmospheric conditions. The treatment is permanent and heated stones do not require any special care.

New treatments which are used to produce blue, pink, orange and yellow sapphire stones are more controversial. This new treatment is a heat-diffusion process which is stable and may or may not completely penetrate the stone. The color is achieved through a process which includes the addition of foreign elements to achieve the desired color alteration.

Shine Stones fully discloses any and all treatments to our gemstones.


AnchorSources

For decades, the basaltic lava rocks and river sands and gravels of Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Pailin Cambodia have been major sources of excellent quality gem sapphires. Other sources of loose sapphire are Australia, Brazil, Kashmir, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Montana, USA.

Today however, there is a new and important source of gem quality sapphires on the market - Madagascar. Madagascar produces sapphires in all the popular colors, including blue, yellow, pink and green. The quality of the best Madagascar stones is outstanding and they are now as highly regarded as Ceylon sapphire in the international market.


Madagascar


Sapphire Madagascar                                                                            Madagascar Sapphire Mining



In the early 1990's, a new source of gem quality sapphire stunned the international gemstone market. Madagascar, a large island nation off the south-east coast of the African continent, became the hottest news in the precious gem industry. With just a few years of development, several new mine sources began producing commercial to top gem quality sapphires the likes of which had not been seen for over a century.

Buyers from around the globe flocked to the new finds. Once small villages of a few dozen mud huts soon became wild west boomtowns with 10's of thousands of new inhabitants. Most of the newcomers were itinerant miners looking to strike it rich in the pay dirt of the Madagascar wilderness. Dirt poor farmers could become instantly wealthy by local standards with the find of just one exceptional rough sapphire crystal.

These new African deposits have been a boon to sapphire traders everywhere in the world. There is now a whole new range of beautiful blue gemstones available to gem dealers, jewelers and collectors, many of which are often compared with Ceylon sapphire. The color saturation, clarity, evenness and purity of color occasionally rival the finest of Burma and even the elusive sapphires of Kashmir.

The wonderful advantage to modern day sapphire lovers is the relative availability of Madagascar gems at affordable prices. Madagascar has made the dream of owning a Kashmir look-alike possible to a wide range of gem lovers around the world.

Ilakaka and Sakaraha are situated a little south of the island Madagascar near a place called Toliara or Tulear. Since its discovery in 1998, the mine has seen active mining and trading from all over Madagascar is conducted here. Go past the desert southwards and you will reach a place called Andranondambo. Known at one time as Fort Dauphin, Tolanaro is a metasomatic sapphire mining area for blue sapphires where, in 1994 the first sapphires of gem quality were found.


Sri Lanka

 Ceylon Sapphire Gem Mining     
Ceylon Sapphire

                                                                

Mining on the island of Sri Lanka goes back at least 2000 years. This island has its own heritage in the mining arena. The island is called Gem Island or "Ratna Dweepa" because of the large variety of gems found here. You will find everything from peridot to moonstones to garnets and topaz. Today Sri Lanka is best recognized for it's the sapphires called the Ceylon Blue, and the sapphire called Padparadscha which has a beautiful and unique orange pink pastel soft color, very similar to the Lotus flower found on this island. The traditional Ceylon mines are near Ratnapura which is located southeast of Colombo about 100kms away.


Sri Lanka is still one of the world’s largest sources of fine quality blue sapphire. It is a place where one can regularly find excellent gems over the 100 carat mark. Many of the famous large sapphires in museums around the world came from this gemstone rich tropical island. Sri Lanka is also a very well known source for fine quality star sapphires.

The classic “cornflower blue” is what Sri Lanka is best known for. The finest of the sapphires from Ceylon are a very even and intense pure blue color, with a high degree of saturation. This bright and medium toned shade of blue is highly prized around the world, and is considered to be far superior to the often overly dark and inky colors commonly found in Australia and Thailand.

The area know as Ratnapura sits right in the middle of the gem producing area of Sri Lanka. Surrounding this town one can see hundreds of small to large hand dug pits where the gemming (Sri Lankan term for gem mining) is going on. The government has put a total ban on mechanized mining, thereby assuring a tight supply, stable prices, and a source of income for many future generations of poor indigenous laborers.


Burma

Burma, which is today called Myanmar, has several important locations that produce sapphire. The most famous is the Mogok gem tract which has a rich history of production dating back several hundred years. Sapphires from Burma were not recognized for their superior quality until the 1950's, after which their value and demand has risen dramatically. 

But what exactly is it that makes blue sapphires from Burma so superior to gems from any other location? In visual terms it is what is known as color saturation. Burmese sapphires possess some of the very highest concentration of blue color possible. The only way to properly understand this is to see the very best of Burmese sapphires side by side with the best from any other source in the world.


USA

In the U.S., the Yogo Gulch in Judith Basin Co. has produced choice, deep blue Sapphire crystals. Not far from the Yogo Gulch, near Helena, waterworn Sapphires stones are found in the Missouri River throughout its length in Lewis and Clark County. Montana is also the claim to a few other localities: Salesville, Gallatin Co., Rock Creek, Granite Co., and Cottonwood Creek, Deer Lodge Co. Other famous occurrences are at Hastings Co., Ontario; Corundum Hill, near Unionville, Chester Co., Pennsylvania; and several scattered areas in southern California and North Carolina. Large deposits of Emery were worked near Peekskill, Westchester Co., New York.
Rubies can be found in the U.S. in the Cowee Creek District, Macon Co., North Carolina. A few scattered finds were reported in Sparta and Ogdensburg, Sussex Co., New Jersey.

The production of gem-quality sapphires in the United States is not new or recent. In 1865, the first U.S. sapphires were found in the gravels of the Missouri River in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. This was followed by subsequent discoveries on Dry Cottonwood Creek in Deer Lodge County in 1889, on Rock Creek in Granite County in 1892, and in Yogo Gulch in Judith Basin County in 1895. Additionally, small amounts of saphire are recovered from Quartz Gulch in Granite County, Pole Creek in Madison County, the Missouri River in Chouteau County, and Brown's Gulch in Silver Bow County. Furthermore, corundum crystals, from which star sapphires have been cut, are found in Beaverhead and Madison Counties. Also, in 1895, the first sapphires were produced from the Cowee Valley in Macon County, North Carolina. But until very recently, with the exception of Yogo Gulch material, the commercial gemstone industry has had limited interest in U.S. sapphires.

Montana.--Mining of Yogo Gulch sapphires began within a year of their discovery in 1895 and continued for 39 years. In 1923, the mine was damaged so badly by rain that it could not economically recover. Other attempts have been made to commercially mine the deposit, but to date, all of these attempts have ended in economic failure.

Yogo's are unique among the world's sapphires. They lack the color zoning so prevalent in other sapphires, their uniform "corn-flower blue" color is natural (not the result of heat-treating), and their clarity is uniformly high. These features rank them among the world's finest saphires. Unfortunately, the rough is both small and flat, wafer-like in shape. The majority of the crystals or pieces of crystals recovered are too small to be cut, most are less than 1 carat and finds of over 2 carats are rare. Reportedly, the largest crystal was a 19 carat stone found in 1910 that was cut into an 8-carat stone. The size of the cut stones greatly restrict the market for Yogo's, they are beautiful, small, very expensive sapphires.

Currently, Yogo sapphires are produced from three sources: Rancor lnc., produces material from the original Yogo Gulch deposit; Vortex Mining produces from a recently discovered extension of the Yogo dike; and material is produced by individuals from privately owned lots in Sapphire Village. The first two producers market only cut stones and finished goods and the third is comprised essentially of hobbyists.
Historically, the amount of sapphires produced from the Missouri River and Rock Creek areas greatly exceeded that from Yogo Gulch. However, the value of the material produced from Yogo, reported to be in excess of $30 million, is significantly greater than that of the combined values of the other areas. This relationship is rapidly changing.

The combination of large volume commercial operations on the Missouri River, and to some extent Rock Creek, plus the advent of successful heat-treating techniques for the material has greatly enhanced the acceptance of these sapphires by the gemstone industry. This enhanced acceptance has resulted in a significant increase in the market for and value of U.S. sapphires. Unconfirmed reports have circulated that a parcel of select 3- to 10-carat material, suitable for heat-treating, was sold for as much as $40,000 per kilogram. A more realistic price for 3- to 10-carat, sorted mine-run material is in the range of $5,000 per kilogram, with many kilograms of mine-run rough selling for $1,000 per kilogram.

The sapphires from the Missouri River gravels in Lewis and Clark County are a mixture of rough and pitted crystals showing well defined faces and completely rounded and smooth-surface highly stream worn pebbles. The majority of the material is pale blue or blue-green, with deep blue stones quite rare. Stones also are found in pastel blue, green, pink, pale red, purple, yellow, and orange. Most of the stones recovered are less than 6.4 millimeters in diameter, but material 6.4 to 12.7 millimeters in diameter are not uncommon. Material greater than 12.7 millimeters in diameter is rare.

Currently there are seven operations on the Missouri River that commercially produce sapphires and/or operate a dig-for-fee area. Not all of these may be active in any one year. It is the author's understanding that one operation, currently inactive, (a self-propelled floating 16-inch suction dredge) is for sale. The mines operate from about the last week of May through the first week of September.

The Rock Creek sapphires are very similar to the sapphires from the Missouri River but differ in the general shape of the crystals. The stones are basically crude hexagonal plates about the same dimension in width and height, with a much higher percentage of the material being well rounded water worn pebbles. There appears to be more of the larger sized (greater than 12.7 millimeters) material. Additionally, it is reported that the Rock Creek material has a greater percentage of stones that can be heat-treated for color enhancement.

During the past several years, there has been only a single producer on Rock Creek. The producer operated both a commercial recovery plant and a fee recovery area. The fee recovery area sold buckets of gravel for washing and also offered, for a predetermined fixed fee, the output of one day's operation of the commercial wash plant. There is work underway which would result in a second, much larger producer, opening an operation on another deposit in the area. If things go as planned, the new operation on Rock Creek would be the largest sapphire producer in Montana.

There are a number of locations between Dillon in Beaverhead County and Ennis in Madison County that produce lavender, grayish-lavender, bluish-gray, and gray hexagonal sapphire crystals that, when cut, produce stones that contain four- or six-ray stars. At least one producer from the Dillon area is currently advertising the availability of this type of material. The remainder of the sapphire deposits in Montana appear to be operated by individual hobbyists.


Mythology

The myths, legends, beliefs, superstitions, traditions and symbolism associated with blue sapphire have been numerous...

Legend has it that the first person to wear Sapphire was Prometheus, the rival of Zeus, who took the gemstone from Cacaus, where he also stole fire from heaven for man.

Known as the "Gem of Heaven", the ancient Persians believed Sapphires were a chip from the pedestal that supported the earth, and that its reflections gave the sky its colors.

Tradition holds that Moses was given the Ten Commandments on tablets of sapphire, making it the most sacred gemstone. Because blue sapphires represent divine favor, they were the gemstone of choice for kings and high priests. The British Crown Jewels are full of large blue sapphires, the symbol of pure and wise rulers.

The guardians of innocence, Sapphires symbolize truth, sincerity and faithfulness, and are thought to bring peace, joy and wisdom to their owners. In ancient times it was believed that when the wearer of a Sapphire faced challenging obstacles, the gem's power enabled them to find the correct solution.

In India it was believed that a Sapphire immersed in water formed an elixir that could cure the bite of scorpions and snakes. Alternatively, if it were worn as a talisman pendant, it would protect the wearer against evil spirits.

The following legend is Burmese in origin and highlights Sapphires‘ connection with faithfulness: “Eons ago Tsun-Kyan-Kse, a golden haired goddess with Sapphire blue eyes, presided lovingly over the temple of Lao-Tsun. Everyday, the temple‘s chief monk Mun-Ha, meditated before the golden goddess accompanied by his devoted companion, a green-eyed cat named Sinh. One day the temple was besieged by a group of terrible outlaws. When they threw Mun-Ha to the floor, Sinh leapt fiercely at the bandits, jumping up on his master‘s chest to protect him. The wrong doers fled screaming in fear, never to return and in gratitude for his courage, the golden goddess awarded Sinh with her Sapphire blue eyes. To this day, Sinh‘s ancestors guard over the temple.” The temple still stands and is populated by Siamese cat‘s with striking blue eyes (typically this breed has green eyes).

For hundreds of years Blue Sapphires were the popular choice for engagement and wedding rings.

Yellow Sapphire Pukhraj -Indian Vedic Astrology


Pukhraj is the Hindi name for yellow sapphire. Yellow sapphire has a special significance in Vedic astrology, where there are 9 gems thought to correspond to the 9 planets: ruby, pearl, coral, emerald, yellow sapphire, diamond, blue sapphire, chrysoberyl cat's eye, and hessonite garnet. Yellow sapphire is associated with Guru or Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system.

Jupiter is thought to be the planet connected with knowledge, wisdom, good fortune, power, status and wealth. Wearing a yellow sapphire is believed to balances and harmonize the effects of Jupiter. Wearing Pukhraj is said to attract wealth, bring prosperity to the family and help in the fulfillment of ambition.

 Natural Yellow Sapphire Bangkok 3.60 cts
Bangkok Yellow Sapphire 

For example, it is believed that a single woman who wears yellow sapphire will get married early, and that a married woman will have a peaceful married life. Astrologers believe it also acts as a protective charm. Those who find obstruction in the progress of their education, or those who suffer losses of property should wear yellow sapphire for removal of their difficulties. In general yellow sapphire is recommended as promoting health, fitness and vigor and strength.

Astrologers make several recommendations for wearing yellow sapphire. It is suggested that the sapphire be set in gold, and be worn starting on a Thursday, within an hour of sunrise. If set in a ring, the ring should be worn on the index finger of the right hand (for right-handed people). It is very important that the sapphire be of high quality. The theory is that the larger and cleaner the stone, the better the results. The stone should be transparent, so that light will pass through the stone. Often it is recommended that the stone be set in a ring so that the sapphire is in contact with the skin.



The cut of a Pukhraj worn for astrological purposes is quite important. The cut should be symmetrical, and the stone should not be cut so shallow that it is windowed, or so deep that it suffers from extinction. The polish should be good, with no scratches or other defects. Natural inclusions are acceptable, but the color should be consistent. A vibrant or rich yellow is usually preferred, but a lighter yellow with consistent color is said to have a greater astrological impact than a deeper color with evident zoning.

Since the astrological impact is believed to depend on the carat weight of the gem, astrologers will usually recommend a Pukhraj of 3 carats or larger.


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Yellow Sapphire Gemstone Information



Yellow Sapphire

Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraj) Gemstone of Planet Jupiter:


COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.


Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)


Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire

Chemical Composition   –     AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                            –     Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow color to dark organish golden to greenish yellow.

Species                         –     Corundum

Density                          –     4.00

Birefringence                  –     0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Yellow sapphire Jupiter Mantra

“Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone


Astrological information of yellow sapphire

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond. - See more at: http://www.shinestones.com/yellow-sapphire/

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

COMPOSITION OF YELLOW SAPPHIRE PUKHRAJ GEMSTONE

The yellow sapphire gemstone also known as pukhraj stone is an aluminum oxide (Al 2 O3). It’s specific gravity is 3.99 to 4.00 and refractive index range is 1.760-1.768 to 1.770-1.779. Its hardness on Mohs scale is 9. It’s the next hardest mineral after diamond.

Chemical Composition of Yellow Sapphire Stone (Pukhraj)

Yellow Sapphire is made up of aluminium oxide.

Gemological Properties of Yellow sapphire  –

Chemical Composition   –       AL2O3 (Aluminium Oxide).

Color                                 –      Any shade of yellow, from pale yellow
color to dark organish golden to greenish
yellow.

Species                             –     Corundum

Density                            –      4.00

Birefringence                  –      0.008

Healing Properties of Yellow sapphire

Planet                 –       Jupiter

Cosmic Color     –       Light Yellow

Day                     –       Thursday

Time                   –        Sunset

Chakra                –       2nd, Ajna

Jupiter Mantra

–   “Om Bhrim Brihaspataye Namah” repeated 108
times at the time of wearing the Yellow Sapphire
Gemstone

- See more at: http://yellowsapphire.org.in/history-and-general-information/composition-of-yellow-sapphire-pukhraj/#sthash.bAMwAdjY.dpuf

Yellow Sapphire is the primary gem for the planet Jupiter. Yellow Sapphire is another variety of the mineral Corundum, as are Ruby, Sapphire and the other color varieties of Sapphire such as Pink Sapphire, Purple Sapphire, Padparadscha, etc. Sapphire Corundum is the mineral second in hardest only to Diamond. Hardness is so highly prized a quality in gem minerals not only for it's durability, but also because the faceted gem may be polished with nice mirror like facets, which are more brilliant, or reflect more white light than a softer mineral.

Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraaj) blesses one with good luck & fortune, wealth & prosperity, valor & fame. It brings success and profits in business & industry ; promotion, raise & approbation in service ; economic abundance, all comforts and luxuries in life.

Yellow Sapphire removes hurdles in finding love, getting married, creates conducive circumstances to hasten delayed marriage, grants true happiness & marital bliss, and improves the quality of life. It brings affection & harmony in relationships ; fills one with enthusiasm & positive attitude. It results in fulfillment, benevolence, longevity & good health.

A good quality yellow sapphire gives the wearer happiness, fortune, prosperity, intelligence, fame, good name, wealth, comfort, good health, a long life, and blesses women with good children.

There can be an immediate financial change for the better shortly after putting on a yellow sapphire. Yellow sapphires can also give one a more philosophical attitude toward life, and aid meditation and concentration. Yellow sapphire protects its wearers from evil spirits.

It is believed that if a woman having difficulty getting married or with marriage problems wears a yellow sapphire, the obstructions to her happiness will be removed.

Yellow sapphires are recommended for those taking part in business, and those interested in spiritual pursuits, such as preaching, yoga, meditation, and study. It is good to wear yellow sapphires when taking long journeys or if one travels often.

Perceived to be one of the safest stones, known to man, for its neutral effects to those it might not suit and superlative effects to those it does; it is no wonder that this gemstone reigns supreme in terms of being expensive, second only to the diamond. A stone worn by many star signs, Yellow Sapphire is known to increase your financial status, empowering you with more ways of earning an extra buck to your otherwise routine pay check.

Yellow Sapphire is known to provide the wearer with enormous wealth, good health, fame, name, honour and success. Yellow Sapphire represents the planet Jupiter. And Jupiter is known to be the largest planet that has its comparison with Saturn. Because of the magnanimity of its size, Jupiter belongs to the category of excesses. It is also known to empower one with the capacity of single handedly being the master of the one's desires.

It is also said that if you seek to sort all marital problems, then Yellow Sapphire is the solution for you. The Power of this gem is such that the girl that you desire will be yours forever and if a girl will wear this gem then she will get married early.

As mentioned earlier, the colour yellow brings in warmth and any bodily action that requires this will necessarily be treated with Yellow sapphire. Happily married couples also give credit to the Yellow Sapphire for its presence in their lives.

Yellow sapphire signifies knowledge, wisdom, virtue, fortune, justice, education, future, religion, philosophy, devotion, children, distant travel, spirituality, truthfulness, prosperity and charity.


**Medical Disclaimer** All Above mentioned Descriptions are according to Indian & Chinese Mythology & the seller takes no Responsibility whatsoever for any claim made in the Descriptions. Healing benefits of stones should not be intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other healthcare professional.


Yellow Sapphire has become a favorite in jewelry because it is available in so many color nuances, ranging from a light lemon yellow  to a fully saturated vivid yellow to a deep orangey-yellow. Yellow sapphire also has a special place in Vedic astrology, where pukhraj is one of the 9 sacred gems.

Sapphire is one of the most important of all the loose colored gemstones and comes in a wide variety of colors: blue, pink, yellow, green, purple, orange, padparadscha, blue green, lemon yellow, color change, and black color.   With a hardness of 9 on the Moh's scale, loose cut sapphires are extremely hard tough and durable, they are suitable for use in any kind of jewelry. Sapphire of all colors have become especially popular for astrological rings or engagement rings , since sapphire is durable enough to wear every day.

The prices and value of yellow sapphire vary depending on the size, quality and treatment of the  individual gemstone.  Unheated yellow sapphires with good color saturation and excellent clarity are the rarest and most valuable, especially in larger sizes, and much sought after by gem collectors. Most yellow sapphires have been heat treated to improve the color and clarity. In addition,  many yellow sapphires in the market have been heat treated with beryllium, in a process known as lattice diffusion. This process produces vivid yellows and oranges.


Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry? 
 
There are many reasons, but basically it boils down to value and choice.

When buying your gemstone loose instead of a pre-set stone, you can be sure you are getting the best value for your money.  Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for.  The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting.  A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color.  With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is.  In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice.  You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver; prong set or bezel set.  You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!


Yellow sapphire ring                                              yellow sapphire jewelry



 AnchorAttributes

OriginMadagascar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Burma, Australia, India, Kenya, Tanzania, U.S.A.
ColorYellow, light lemon to dark yellow, Burma yellow, Ceylon yellow, orange-yellow
Refractive Index1.759-1.778
Chemical CompositionAL2 O3
Hardness9
Density4
Crystal StructureTrigonal
Zodiac SignLibra
PlanetVenus
MonthSeptember
Anniversary5th and 45th


Yellow sapphire's attractive color is just one reason for this gemstone's popularity. As with all sapphire, it's also extremely durable, having a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. Sapphire has a specific gravity of 4.00, a refractive index of 1.76 - 1.78, and birefringence of 0.008.  The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral. Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs.  The gem yellow sapphire is classified as having a trigonal crystalline structure because it has three planes of symmetry and four axes. Three axes are at 60 degrees to each other in the same plane. The fourth axis is perpendicular and unequal in length to the other three. The form of a sapphire's crystals depends on the variety and locality. Sapphires may have an uneven or a conchoidal fracture but no real cleavage. The amount of light reflected at the surface of a gemstone is its luster and yellow sapphires have a glassy (vitreous) luster as opposed to the waxy, greasy, or resinous luster of other stones.


AnchorColor 

Color is the single most important factor in determining the value of a yellow sapphire.  Indeed, the color of a sapphire is more important than its clarity. Sapphires are rarely clean and even very expensive stones can be slightly included. Subtle differences in color can make great variations in valuations of fine gemstones. Fine loose gemstones of good color and clarity are always rare and valuable. Highly saturated medium or medium dark yellow tones are best, yellow sapphires which are too dark or too light are worth considerably less.  Beautiful colors include bright lemon yellow, vivid yellow and rich Ceylon yellow.

The name sapphire comes from the Greek word "sapphirus", meaning "blue".  However, sapphire gemstones come in many colors including pink, yellow, orange, green, black, color-change, purple, violet, light blue, and the rare orange-pink Padparadscha sapphire gems.Padparadscha comes from the Sinahalese word meaning "lotus color". Sapphires other than blue, pink, yellow, green and orange sapphire are usually called "natural fancy-color sapphire". Red hues result from traces of chromium. The greater the concentration of oxides the deeper the color. So pink sapphire and ruby are the same gemstone with just different levels of chromium.


AnchorCut

Ovals, rounds, cushions and emeralds are the most common cuts for yellow sapphire, due to the typical shape of saphire rough. Other popular sapphire shapes include pears, briolettes, hearts and  marquises.  Star sapphires are cut into the cabochon shape in order to develop and properly display the star effect.  Fibers or fibrous cavities within a star sapphire reflect the light which causes a star to appear within the stone. A six-ray star sapphire has three sets of parallel fibers. Skilled cutters can sometimes create a 12-ray star sapphire but they are rare.
 
 
AnchorTreatments

Traditional heating is widely used for yellow sapphire and is an accepted enhancement process which can improve the transparency and color of the stones. Techniques range from simply throwing gems into a fire to be cooked, to employing sophisticated electric or gas furnaces at specific pressures and atmospheric conditions. The treatment is permanent and heated stones do not require any special care.

New treatments which are used to produce blue, pink, orange and yellow sapphire stones are more controversial. This new treatment is a heat-diffusion process which is stable and may or may not completely penetrate the stone. The color is achieved through a process which includes the addition of foreign elements to achieve the desired color alteration.

Shine Stones fully discloses any and all treatments to our gemstones.


AnchorSources

For decades, the basaltic lava rocks and river sands and gravels of Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Pailin Cambodia have been major sources of excellent quality gem sapphires. Other sources of loose sapphire are Australia, Brazil, Kashmir, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Montana, USA.

Today however, there is a new and important source of gem quality sapphires on the market - Madagascar. Madagascar produces sapphires in all the popular colors, including blue, yellow, pink and green. The quality of the best Madagascar stones is outstanding and they are now as highly regarded as Ceylon sapphire in the international market.


Madagascar


Sapphire Madagascar                                                                            Madagascar Sapphire Mining



In the early 1990's, a new source of gem quality sapphire stunned the international gemstone market. Madagascar, a large island nation off the south-east coast of the African continent, became the hottest news in the precious gem industry. With just a few years of development, several new mine sources began producing commercial to top gem quality sapphires the likes of which had not been seen for over a century.

Buyers from around the globe flocked to the new finds. Once small villages of a few dozen mud huts soon became wild west boomtowns with 10's of thousands of new inhabitants. Most of the newcomers were itinerant miners looking to strike it rich in the pay dirt of the Madagascar wilderness. Dirt poor farmers could become instantly wealthy by local standards with the find of just one exceptional rough sapphire crystal.

These new African deposits have been a boon to sapphire traders everywhere in the world. There is now a whole new range of beautiful blue gemstones available to gem dealers, jewelers and collectors, many of which are often compared with Ceylon sapphire. The color saturation, clarity, evenness and purity of color occasionally rival the finest of Burma and even the elusive sapphires of Kashmir.

The wonderful advantage to modern day sapphire lovers is the relative availability of Madagascar gems at affordable prices. Madagascar has made the dream of owning a Kashmir look-alike possible to a wide range of gem lovers around the world.

Ilakaka and Sakaraha are situated a little south of the island Madagascar near a place called Toliara or Tulear. Since its discovery in 1998, the mine has seen active mining and trading from all over Madagascar is conducted here. Go past the desert southwards and you will reach a place called Andranondambo. Known at one time as Fort Dauphin, Tolanaro is a metasomatic sapphire mining area for blue sapphires where, in 1994 the first sapphires of gem quality were found.


Sri Lanka

 Ceylon Sapphire Gem Mining     
Ceylon Sapphire

                                                                

Mining on the island of Sri Lanka goes back at least 2000 years. This island has its own heritage in the mining arena. The island is called Gem Island or "Ratna Dweepa" because of the large variety of gems found here. You will find everything from peridot to moonstones to garnets and topaz. Today Sri Lanka is best recognized for it's the sapphires called the Ceylon Blue, and the sapphire called Padparadscha which has a beautiful and unique orange pink pastel soft color, very similar to the Lotus flower found on this island. The traditional Ceylon mines are near Ratnapura which is located southeast of Colombo about 100kms away.


Sri Lanka is still one of the world’s largest sources of fine quality blue sapphire. It is a place where one can regularly find excellent gems over the 100 carat mark. Many of the famous large sapphires in museums around the world came from this gemstone rich tropical island. Sri Lanka is also a very well known source for fine quality star sapphires.

The classic “cornflower blue” is what Sri Lanka is best known for. The finest of the sapphires from Ceylon are a very even and intense pure blue color, with a high degree of saturation. This bright and medium toned shade of blue is highly prized around the world, and is considered to be far superior to the often overly dark and inky colors commonly found in Australia and Thailand.

The area know as Ratnapura sits right in the middle of the gem producing area of Sri Lanka. Surrounding this town one can see hundreds of small to large hand dug pits where the gemming (Sri Lankan term for gem mining) is going on. The government has put a total ban on mechanized mining, thereby assuring a tight supply, stable prices, and a source of income for many future generations of poor indigenous laborers.


Burma

Burma, which is today called Myanmar, has several important locations that produce sapphire. The most famous is the Mogok gem tract which has a rich history of production dating back several hundred years. Sapphires from Burma were not recognized for their superior quality until the 1950's, after which their value and demand has risen dramatically. 

But what exactly is it that makes blue sapphires from Burma so superior to gems from any other location? In visual terms it is what is known as color saturation. Burmese sapphires possess some of the very highest concentration of blue color possible. The only way to properly understand this is to see the very best of Burmese sapphires side by side with the best from any other source in the world.


USA

In the U.S., the Yogo Gulch in Judith Basin Co. has produced choice, deep blue Sapphire crystals. Not far from the Yogo Gulch, near Helena, waterworn Sapphires stones are found in the Missouri River throughout its length in Lewis and Clark County. Montana is also the claim to a few other localities: Salesville, Gallatin Co., Rock Creek, Granite Co., and Cottonwood Creek, Deer Lodge Co. Other famous occurrences are at Hastings Co., Ontario; Corundum Hill, near Unionville, Chester Co., Pennsylvania; and several scattered areas in southern California and North Carolina. Large deposits of Emery were worked near Peekskill, Westchester Co., New York.
Rubies can be found in the U.S. in the Cowee Creek District, Macon Co., North Carolina. A few scattered finds were reported in Sparta and Ogdensburg, Sussex Co., New Jersey.

The production of gem-quality sapphires in the United States is not new or recent. In 1865, the first U.S. sapphires were found in the gravels of the Missouri River in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. This was followed by subsequent discoveries on Dry Cottonwood Creek in Deer Lodge County in 1889, on Rock Creek in Granite County in 1892, and in Yogo Gulch in Judith Basin County in 1895. Additionally, small amounts of saphire are recovered from Quartz Gulch in Granite County, Pole Creek in Madison County, the Missouri River in Chouteau County, and Brown's Gulch in Silver Bow County. Furthermore, corundum crystals, from which star sapphires have been cut, are found in Beaverhead and Madison Counties. Also, in 1895, the first sapphires were produced from the Cowee Valley in Macon County, North Carolina. But until very recently, with the exception of Yogo Gulch material, the commercial gemstone industry has had limited interest in U.S. sapphires.

Montana.--Mining of Yogo Gulch sapphires began within a year of their discovery in 1895 and continued for 39 years. In 1923, the mine was damaged so badly by rain that it could not economically recover. Other attempts have been made to commercially mine the deposit, but to date, all of these attempts have ended in economic failure.

Yogo's are unique among the world's sapphires. They lack the color zoning so prevalent in other sapphires, their uniform "corn-flower blue" color is natural (not the result of heat-treating), and their clarity is uniformly high. These features rank them among the world's finest saphires. Unfortunately, the rough is both small and flat, wafer-like in shape. The majority of the crystals or pieces of crystals recovered are too small to be cut, most are less than 1 carat and finds of over 2 carats are rare. Reportedly, the largest crystal was a 19 carat stone found in 1910 that was cut into an 8-carat stone. The size of the cut stones greatly restrict the market for Yogo's, they are beautiful, small, very expensive sapphires.

Currently, Yogo sapphires are produced from three sources: Rancor lnc., produces material from the original Yogo Gulch deposit; Vortex Mining produces from a recently discovered extension of the Yogo dike; and material is produced by individuals from privately owned lots in Sapphire Village. The first two producers market only cut stones and finished goods and the third is comprised essentially of hobbyists.
Historically, the amount of sapphires produced from the Missouri River and Rock Creek areas greatly exceeded that from Yogo Gulch. However, the value of the material produced from Yogo, reported to be in excess of $30 million, is significantly greater than that of the combined values of the other areas. This relationship is rapidly changing.

The combination of large volume commercial operations on the Missouri River, and to some extent Rock Creek, plus the advent of successful heat-treating techniques for the material has greatly enhanced the acceptance of these sapphires by the gemstone industry. This enhanced acceptance has resulted in a significant increase in the market for and value of U.S. sapphires. Unconfirmed reports have circulated that a parcel of select 3- to 10-carat material, suitable for heat-treating, was sold for as much as $40,000 per kilogram. A more realistic price for 3- to 10-carat, sorted mine-run material is in the range of $5,000 per kilogram, with many kilograms of mine-run rough selling for $1,000 per kilogram.

The sapphires from the Missouri River gravels in Lewis and Clark County are a mixture of rough and pitted crystals showing well defined faces and completely rounded and smooth-surface highly stream worn pebbles. The majority of the material is pale blue or blue-green, with deep blue stones quite rare. Stones also are found in pastel blue, green, pink, pale red, purple, yellow, and orange. Most of the stones recovered are less than 6.4 millimeters in diameter, but material 6.4 to 12.7 millimeters in diameter are not uncommon. Material greater than 12.7 millimeters in diameter is rare.

Currently there are seven operations on the Missouri River that commercially produce sapphires and/or operate a dig-for-fee area. Not all of these may be active in any one year. It is the author's understanding that one operation, currently inactive, (a self-propelled floating 16-inch suction dredge) is for sale. The mines operate from about the last week of May through the first week of September.

The Rock Creek sapphires are very similar to the sapphires from the Missouri River but differ in the general shape of the crystals. The stones are basically crude hexagonal plates about the same dimension in width and height, with a much higher percentage of the material being well rounded water worn pebbles. There appears to be more of the larger sized (greater than 12.7 millimeters) material. Additionally, it is reported that the Rock Creek material has a greater percentage of stones that can be heat-treated for color enhancement.

During the past several years, there has been only a single producer on Rock Creek. The producer operated both a commercial recovery plant and a fee recovery area. The fee recovery area sold buckets of gravel for washing and also offered, for a predetermined fixed fee, the output of one day's operation of the commercial wash plant. There is work underway which would result in a second, much larger producer, opening an operation on another deposit in the area. If things go as planned, the new operation on Rock Creek would be the largest sapphire producer in Montana.

There are a number of locations between Dillon in Beaverhead County and Ennis in Madison County that produce lavender, grayish-lavender, bluish-gray, and gray hexagonal sapphire crystals that, when cut, produce stones that contain four- or six-ray stars. At least one producer from the Dillon area is currently advertising the availability of this type of material. The remainder of the sapphire deposits in Montana appear to be operated by individual hobbyists.


Mythology

The myths, legends, beliefs, superstitions, traditions and symbolism associated with blue sapphire have been numerous...

Legend has it that the first person to wear Sapphire was Prometheus, the rival of Zeus, who took the gemstone from Cacaus, where he also stole fire from heaven for man.

Known as the "Gem of Heaven", the ancient Persians believed Sapphires were a chip from the pedestal that supported the earth, and that its reflections gave the sky its colors.

Tradition holds that Moses was given the Ten Commandments on tablets of sapphire, making it the most sacred gemstone. Because blue sapphires represent divine favor, they were the gemstone of choice for kings and high priests. The British Crown Jewels are full of large blue sapphires, the symbol of pure and wise rulers.

The guardians of innocence, Sapphires symbolize truth, sincerity and faithfulness, and are thought to bring peace, joy and wisdom to their owners. In ancient times it was believed that when the wearer of a Sapphire faced challenging obstacles, the gem's power enabled them to find the correct solution.

In India it was believed that a Sapphire immersed in water formed an elixir that could cure the bite of scorpions and snakes. Alternatively, if it were worn as a talisman pendant, it would protect the wearer against evil spirits.

The following legend is Burmese in origin and highlights Sapphires‘ connection with faithfulness: “Eons ago Tsun-Kyan-Kse, a golden haired goddess with Sapphire blue eyes, presided lovingly over the temple of Lao-Tsun. Everyday, the temple‘s chief monk Mun-Ha, meditated before the golden goddess accompanied by his devoted companion, a green-eyed cat named Sinh. One day the temple was besieged by a group of terrible outlaws. When they threw Mun-Ha to the floor, Sinh leapt fiercely at the bandits, jumping up on his master‘s chest to protect him. The wrong doers fled screaming in fear, never to return and in gratitude for his courage, the golden goddess awarded Sinh with her Sapphire blue eyes. To this day, Sinh‘s ancestors guard over the temple.” The temple still stands and is populated by Siamese cat‘s with striking blue eyes (typically this breed has green eyes).

For hundreds of years Blue Sapphires were the popular choice for engagement and wedding rings.

Yellow Sapphire Pukhraj -Indian Vedic Astrology


Pukhraj is the Hindi name for yellow sapphire. Yellow sapphire has a special significance in Vedic astrology, where there are 9 gems thought to correspond to the 9 planets: ruby, pearl, coral, emerald, yellow sapphire, diamond, blue sapphire, chrysoberyl cat's eye, and hessonite garnet. Yellow sapphire is associated with Guru or Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system.

Jupiter is thought to be the planet connected with knowledge, wisdom, good fortune, power, status and wealth. Wearing a yellow sapphire is believed to balances and harmonize the effects of Jupiter. Wearing Pukhraj is said to attract wealth, bring prosperity to the family and help in the fulfillment of ambition.

 Natural Yellow Sapphire Bangkok 3.60 cts
Bangkok Yellow Sapphire 

For example, it is believed that a single woman who wears yellow sapphire will get married early, and that a married woman will have a peaceful married life. Astrologers believe it also acts as a protective charm. Those who find obstruction in the progress of their education, or those who suffer losses of property should wear yellow sapphire for removal of their difficulties. In general yellow sapphire is recommended as promoting health, fitness and vigor and strength.

Astrologers make several recommendations for wearing yellow sapphire. It is suggested that the sapphire be set in gold, and be worn starting on a Thursday, within an hour of sunrise. If set in a ring, the ring should be worn on the index finger of the right hand (for right-handed people). It is very important that the sapphire be of high quality. The theory is that the larger and cleaner the stone, the better the results. The stone should be transparent, so that light will pass through the stone. Often it is recommended that the stone be set in a ring so that the sapphire is in contact with the skin.


The cut of a Pukhraj worn for astrological purposes is quite important. The cut should be symmetrical, and the stone should not be cut so shallow that it is windowed, or so deep that it suffers from extinction. The polish should be good, with no scratches or other defects. Natural inclusions are acceptable, but the color should be consistent. A vibrant or rich yellow is usually preferred, but a lighter yellow with consistent color is said to have a greater astrological impact than a deeper color with evident zoning.


Since the astrological impact is believed to depend on the carat weight of the gem, astrologers will usually recommend a Pukhraj of 3 carats or larger.


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